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Politics and Public Administration: Citing & Referencing

Welcome to the Glucksman Library guide supporting the Department of Politics and Public Administration in the Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Limerick.

Cite It Right 4th Edition

To access the 4th edition of the Glucksman Library's Cite It Right: Guide to Harvard Referencing Style go to http://libguides.ul.ie/citeitright. A PDF version of the 4th edition can be accessed below:

Referencing Guides

In addition to Cite It Right there are several other referencing guides available in the Library and these can be found at shelfmark 808+. Some examples are shown below:

Referencing: An Introduction

Referencing acknowledges the books, articles, websites, and any other material used in the writing of a paper, essay or thesis.

1. Essential Elements of Referencing

  • Citing: referring to sources you quote within your document. This brief citation refers the reader to the exact place in your reference list or bibliography where you will provide the extended details of the source.
  • Reference list: the detailed list of sources that have been cited within the text. Every reference must have enough information for the reader to find the source again.
  • Bibliography: a list of all references consulted in preparing the document, whether cited or not.

This is an example of in-text citing (citations are in bold for demonstration only):

The early 21st century has seen the development of a global epidemic of obesity, as emphasised by a growing body of articles, popular books, and most recently the movie Supersize Me (Spurlock 2004). To prevent obesity, habits need to be changed and dietary education as part of the school curriculum is key (MacDonald 1997, p.78). It is clear that to decrease obesity levels in populations, significant sociological changes will need to take place.

This is how the entries would look in your reference list:

Macdonald, G. (1997) ‘Innovation diffusion and health education in schools’, in Sidell, M., Jones, L., Katz, J. and Peberdy, A., eds., Debates and dilemmas in promoting health, London: Open University, 55-83.

Spurlock, M. (2004) Supersize me: a film of epic proportions [film], Beverly Hills: Roadside Attractions.

 

2. Plagiarism

Passing off another scholar’s work as your own is plagiarism and is considered a major disciplinary offence. Read more about plagiarism in Chapter 6 and Appendix 3 of the UL Student Handbook.

Turnitin.com is used at the University of Limerick to check for instances of plagiarism in students’ work. Check with your department with any questions about the use of Turnitin.

 

3. Harvard (Name-Date) referencing style

Many departments in the University of Limerick recommend a style based on the Harvard (Name-Date) referencing style. There are variations and interpretations within the Harvard referencing style. This guide gives you a version of Harvard based on ISO 690:2010 and BS 5605:1990 approved by UL, hereafter called Harvard UL. However, you should check which style or variation your department or thesis supervisor recommends. Whatever referencing style you are required to follow you must ensure:

  • Consistent application of the rules of whatever variation you are following;
  • Acknowledgement of all sources;
  • Sufficient bibliographic detail to enable your reader to locate the item to which you are referring.

 

4. Referencing styles by discipline or subject

In addition to the Harvard UL style, there are several other styles used in the University of Limerick as other styles are more appropriate to specific disciplines or subjects such as:

  • History – The Irish Historical Society (IHS). See the Rules for Contributors on http://irishhistoricalstudies.ie/.
  • Law – OSCOLA Ireland based on the OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) standard. See http://www.legalcitation.ie/ for more information.
  • Culture and communication – MLA Style (Modern Language Association)
  • Psychology – APA Style (American Psychological Association)

There are thousands of other referencing styles including:

  • ASME Citation Style (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
  • Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Citation Style
  • IEEE Citation Style (Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers)
  • Vancouver Citation Style

If submitting a paper to a publisher, you should check with them to see if there is a particular style that they would like you to use.

The Glucksman Library’s Referencing & EndNote LibGuide provides more information on the different referencing styles and EndNote bibliographic management software at http://libguides.ul.ie/referencing-endnote.

You can direct referencing queries or comments to the Information Desk, your Faculty Librarian or via Ask Us – Tell Us on the library website: www.ul.ie/library.

For further information on how to cite and sample references see Cite It Right.

Stíl Tí an Ghúim / An Gúm Irish Language Style Guide

Stíl Tí an Ghúim / An Gúm Irish Language Style Guide

Stíl Tí an Ghúim / An Gúm Irish Language Style Guide

This style guide to the Irish language draws from New Hart’s Rules and the MHRA Style Guide.

Reference Management Software

Reference management software can help you:

  • Gather references automatically from databases;
  • Format  documents & citations instantly in a variety of styles;
  • Generate bibliographies;
  • Create a personal database of references & PDFs.
Software options include:

Harvard UL EndNote Style

The Harvard UL EndNote style has been updated to reflect the changes made to the Harvard style that UL uses as laid out in the 2016 edition of Cite It Right 4th Edition.

  • To install Harvard UL_2016, download Harvard UL_2016 style above.
  • Next open the file in EndNote Desktop.
  • In EndNote Desktop, go to “File” & choose “Save As”.  Delete the word “copy” & click “Save”.
  • Click on “File” and choose “Close Style”.
  • Then click on the "Select Another Style..." option in the Bibliographic Output Style drop-down menu.
  • Find the Harvard UL_2016 style you have just downloaded in the list and then click Choose.

The PDF document above details some additional instructions on how to use the different reference types in EndNote Harvard UL_2016 style in order to match exactly the item types included in the Cite It Right 4th Edition.

In EndNote Online, Harvard UL_2016 should be available as a style in the drop-down list in Word (or by choosing "Select Another Style"). If it is not listed then go to EndNote Online and select Format > Bibliography and click on "Select Favorites". Then select Harvard UL_2016 and copy to "My Favorites". Harvard UL_2016 will now be available in the drop-down list in Word.