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Cite It Right: Guide to Harvard Referencing Style: A-Z: Articles / Books / Correspondence

This is the online version of the 4th edition of the Glucksman Library's Cite It Right: Guide to Harvard Referencing Style.

A-Z of Sample References

The examples on this page and the next three pages follow the agreed Harvard UL style. These examples are intended as a guide and should be adapted for your own reference list or bibliography. If the item type that you want to reference does not appear in this guide, you should use the rules from "Reference List & Bibliography", and examples of similar items, to create a reference in a manner consistent with Harvard UL.

Articles

  • Journal Article
  • Magazine – Print
  • Magazine – Electronic
  • Newspaper – Print
  • Newspaper – Electronic

Books

  • Sacred Books
  • Book with One Author
  • Book with More than One Author
  • Book – Chapter or Contribution
  • Book – Compiled
  • Book – Edited
  • E-book: PDF Version of a Printed Book
  • E-book: Available Online Only
  • E-book: Chapter or Contribution (Online Only)
  • E-book: Accessed via an E-reader
  • Audiobook
  • Book Review
  • Book with No Title – Working Title
  • Book with No Author e.g. Reference Works

Correspondence

  • Email or Memo
  • Personal Interview
  • Letter – including Historical Archives
  • SMS Text Message
  • Instant Messaging (IM)

Course Material

  • Course Material – Print
  • Course Material – Electronic
  • Lecture Notes
  • Public Folder

Data

  • Published Dataset – Print
  • Published Dataset – Electronic
  • Unpublished Data

Electronic Communication

  • Blog (Weblog)
  • Social Media & Networking Sites (including Facebook)
  • Twitter
  • Discussion Board / Forum
  • Mailing List
  • Web Document with an Author
  • Web Document with No Author and No Date
  • Webpage of an Organisation or Company
  • Wiki

Images

  • Image – Published in Print
  • Image – Electronic
  • Map – Print
  • Map – Electronic
  • Artwork – Physical
  • Artwork – Electronic

Law and Official Publications

  • Act
  • Judgement
  • EU Directive
  • Statutory Instrument
  • Official Guidance Note

Media

  • Press Release
  • Radio / Television – Interview or Contribution
  • Radio / Television – Programme
  • Radio / Television – Advertisement
  • Speech Delivered Live
  • Speech Accessed after the Event
  • Film on Disk / Storage Device / Streaming
  • Microfilm / Microfiche / CD ROM
  • Podcast
  • Online Video

Musical Works

  • Recordings – Commercial Audio
  • Sheet Music

Papers

  • Case Study
  • Conference Paper – Published
  • Conference Paper – Unpublished
  • Conference Poster
  • Pre-Print
  • Working Paper
  • Slideshare Presentation

Reports

  • Published Report
  • Unpublished Report
  • Annual Report

Technical / Commercial / Industrial

  • Patent
  • Standard

Theses

  • Thesis

Translations

  • Translated Work

Articles

Journal Article

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume(Issue number), [or] date/month of publication [in the absence of volume and issue], page number(s)[or ID number if e-only journal], available: doi/web address [if e-journal] [accessed date if e-journal but no DOI].

Lynch, D., Henihan, A.M., Kwapinski, W., Zhang, L. and Leahy, J.J. (2013) 'Ash agglomeration and deposition during combustion of poultry litter in a bubbling fluidized-bed combustor', Energy & Fuels, 27(8), 4684-4694, available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef400744u.

… (Lynch et al. 2013) …

McCaffrey, C. (2013) 'LibQUAL in Ireland: performance assessment and service improvement in Irish university libraries', The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(4), 347-350, available: doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2012.11.036.

… (McCaffrey 2013) …

Hudson, J., Tierney, T.D. and Casey, C. (2002) 'Breeding waders on cutaway bog in County Offaly, 2002', Irish Birds, 7, 61-64.

… (Hudson et al. 2002) …

Hu, G., Feeley, K.J. and Yu, M. (2016) 'Habitat fragmentation drives plant community assembly processes across life stages', PloS One, 11(7), e0159572, available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159572.

… (Hu et al. 2016) …

Lassi, M. and Sonnenwald, D. (2010) 'Identifying factors that may impact the adoption and use of a social science collaboratory: a synthesis of previous research', Information Research, 15(3), colis710, available: http://InformationR.net/ir/15-3/colis7/colis710.html [accessed 05 Aug 2016].

… (Lassi and Sonnenwald 2010) …

References to journal articles must include the web address unless the article is from a print only journal. It is recommended that a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is used if available, as it is a permanent identifier provided by publishers to allow direct, long term access to the article. Where there is no DOI, the stable URL should be used.

 

Magazine – Print

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue number), [or] date/month of publication [in the absence of volume and issue], page number(s).

Doody, O. and Danaher, T. (2012) ‘Developing support for intellectual disability practice – Nursing Network in Intellectual Disabilities Ireland (NNIDI)’, Frontline Magazine, 88, 36-37.

… (Doody and Danaher 2012) …

 

Magazine – Electronic

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, available: web address [accessed date]. Koeppel, D. (2007) China’s iClone, Popular Science, available: http://www.popsci.com/iclone [accessed 04 Apr 2016].

... (Koeppel 2007) ...

 

Newspaper – Print

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Supplement title [if relevant], date, page number(s).

Sheridan, A. (2013) ‘UL opens its huge picture archive’, Limerick Leader, 27 Jul, 11.

... (Sheridan 2013) ...

 

Newspaper – Electronic

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, date, available: library database or web address [accessed date].

Kinsella, S. (2013) ‘Why the head must rule the heart on state policy’, Irish Independent, 22 Oct, available http://www.independent.ie/opinion/columnists/stephen-kinsella/why-the-head-must-rule-the-heart-on-state-policy-29678738.html [accessed 31 Mar 2016].

... (Kinsella 2013) ...

Books

Sacred Books

References to Sacred Books of religious traditions are not usually included in the bibliography. References to these Books should include book (abbreviated), chapter and verse – never a page number. Traditionally a colon is used between chapter and verse.

Examples from the Bible:

… (Heb. 13:8) …

… (2 Kings 11:12) …

Example from The Torah:

            … (Leviticus 19:18) …

Example from The Qur’an (or Koran):

… (Qur’an 2:214) …

 

Book with One Author

Author name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book or Report: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Devereux, E.A. (2013) Understanding the media, 3rd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.

... (Devereux 2013) ...

Do not state in the reference that a book is a first edition. Any other edition (2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.) must be specified as above. Edition information is usually given on the reverse of the title page of a book.

A reprint implies that the book has not been edited but simply that new copies have been produced. Do not include reprint information in a book reference. The year of publication is the year of the edition, not the year of the reprint.

 

Book with More than One Author

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Wallace, J., McMahon, G., Gunnigle, P. and O'Sullivan, M. (2013) Industrial relations in Ireland, 4th ed., Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.

… (Wallace et al. 2013) …

Where there are three or more authors, use et al. in the citation, but list all authors in the reading list/bibliography. Check with your department for departmental preferences re listing authors in both in-text citations and reading lists/bibliographies. The convention is to italicise et al.

 

Book – Chapter or Contribution

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of chapter / contribution’, in Editor(s) or Compiler(s) name, initial(s). of book containing the contribution, ed(s). [or comp(s).], Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not first], Place of Publication: Publisher, page number(s).

O'Connor, P. (2010) 'Gender and organisational culture at senior management level: limits and possibilities for change' in Harford, J. and Rush. C., eds., Have women made a difference? Women in Irish universities 1850-2010, Oxford: Peter Lang, 139-162.

... (O’Connor 2010) ...

Cite the author(s) of the chapter in the text of your paper, not the editor(s) of the book.

 

Book – Compiled

Compiler(s) name, initial(s) comp(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

O'Dwyer, M. comp. (2003) Entrepreneurship, Harlow: Pearson Custom Publishing.

… (O’Dwyer 2003) …

Some publications are edited or compiled rather than written by the person whose name appears on the title page. The function of the editor(s) or compiler(s) should be indicated after his/her name, e.g. ed., comp., in the reference list/bibliography. In the text, refer to the author(s) of the chapter or book section.

 

Book – Edited

Editor(s) name, initial(s). ed(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Chambers, A., Conacher, J.E. and Littlemore, J.M. eds. (2004) ICT & language learning: integrating pedagogy and practice, Birmingham: University of Birmingham Press.

… (Chambers et al. 2004) …

Some publications are edited or compiled rather than written by the person whose name appears on the title page. The function of the editor(s) or compiler(s) should be indicated after his/her name, e.g. ed., comp., in the reference list/bibliography. In the text, refer to the author(s) of the chapter or book section.

 

E-book: PDF Version of a Printed Book

Where an e-book looks like a printed book, you can reference it as a normal book (see above).

Some e-books do not have pagination, are only available online or only on e-book readers and these are referenced to reflect these differences.

 

E-book: Available Online Only

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Name of e-book supplier/publisher, available: web address [accessed date if no DOI or handle].

Gentry, T.G. (2014) The nests and eggs of birds of the United States, Free-Ebooks.net, available: http://www.free-ebooks.net/ebook/The-Nests-and-Eggs-of-Birds-of-the-United-States [accessed 05 Aug 2016].

... (Gentry 2014) …

 

de Grosbois, T. (2015) Mass influence: the habits of the highly influential, Wildfire Workshops, available: http://www.massinfluencethebook.com/ [accessed 05 Aug 2016].

… (de Grosbois 2015) …

 

E-book: Chapter or Contribution (Online Only)

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of chapter / contribution’, in Editor(s) or Compiler(s) name, initial(s). of book containing the contribution, ed(s). [or comp(s).], Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Name of e-book supplier/publisher, page number(s) [or other location information] available: web address [accessed date if no DOI or handle].

Anderson, E. (2014) ‘Dewey's moral philosophy’ in Zalta, E.N., ed., The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, Stanford University, available: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/dewey-moral/ [accessed 05 Aug 2016].

… (Anderson 2014) ...

 

E-book: Accessed via an E-reader

If you accessed an e-book via an e-book reader, you must indicate this in the full reference. As there will be no page numbers, you should use chapter and paragraph numbers in their place in the in-text citation as appropriate.

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any] [e-book reader name], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

McCourt, F. (2005) Teacher man: a memoir [Kindle], London: Scribner.

… (McCourt 2005, ch.1, para.3) …

 

Audiobook

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication of audiobook) Title of audiobook [audiobook], Narrator(s) name, initial(s). [if necessary], Name of Audiobook supplier, available: web address [accessed date].

Joyce, J. (2005) Dubliners [audiobook], McCourt, M., Simply Audiobooks, available: http://www.simplyaudiobooks.com/audio-books/Dubliners/10277/ [accessed 05 Aug 2016].

… (Joyce 2005) …

Cite the author of the book within the text of your paper, not the narrator.

 

Book Review

Reviewer(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication of review) Title of Book Being Reviewed by Author(s) name, initial(s). of book, reviewed in Title of Publication containing the review, volume(issue), page(s) [where available], available: web address [if online] [accessed date if no DOI or handle].

Bracken, F. (2014) Web metrics for library and information professionals by Stuart, D., reviewed in An Leabharlann: The Irish Library, 23(2), 34, available: https://libraryassociation.ie/system/files/private%3A//leabharlann/An%20Leabharlann_23_2n_0.pdf [accessed 05 Aug 2016].

… (Bracken 2014) …

Cite the author of the review within the text of your paper, not the author of the original book.

 

Book with No Title – Working Title

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication, forthcoming) Title of Book or Report (Working Title), ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Radin, P. (2016, forthcoming) Primitive man as philosopher (Working Title), New York: New York Review of Books.

… (Radin 2016, forthcoming) …

A book may be referred to by its working title before it is published.

 

Book with No Author e.g. Reference Works

Title of Work (year of publication) ed. [if not first edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.

Guinness World Records 2016 Blockbusters (2015), London: Guinness World Records.

… (Guinness World Records 2016 Blockbusters 2015)

Correspondence

Email or Memo

As a personal email or electronic memo is not a public source, it is not considered to be recoverable data, therefore you should not list it in your bibliography. However, you can refer to its contents in the body of your text by citing the details.

… in an email to the author (Aug 2014) Gorman clarified the point …

 

Personal Interview

As a personal interview is not a public source, it is not considered to be recoverable data, therefore you should not list it in your bibliography. However, you can refer to the interview in the body of your text by citing the details.

... In an interview (Apr 2005) the findings of the report were discussed and Breen agreed …

If the interview is transcribed in an Appendix, refer the reader to that appendix.

 

Letter – including Historical Archives

Author(s) name, initial(s). (year) ‘Subject matter’, letter to Recipient’s Name, date, held in Collection, Institution, City, Accession/Collection/Item Number [if available].

Lloyd George, D. (1920) ‘Invitation to attend Parliament on 10 Feb 1920’, letter to Eamon DeValera, 2 Feb, held in Norton Collection, Glucksman Library, University of Limerick, Limerick.

... (Lloyd George 1920) …

 

SMS Text Message

A personal SMS text message is not a public source of information and is not considered recoverable data, therefore you should not list it in your bibliography. However, you can refer to its contents in the body of your text by citing the details.

… in an SMS (Jul 2009) O’Connor stated …

 

Instant Messaging (IM)

Correspondence via instant messaging is not a public source of information and is not considered recoverable data, therefore you should not list it in your bibliography. However, you can refer to its contents in the body of your text by citing the details.

… Frawley discussed the key challenges of the project via instant messaging (Mar 2015) …

If the correspondence is transcribed in an appendix, refer the reader to that appendix.