The terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’ are sometimes used interchangeably. Be aware that there are differences between the two.
The reference list is a detailed list of all references cited within the text of a paper.
A bibliography is also a detailed list of references and background reading, but these references may or may not have been cited within the text.
Every reference must have enough information for the reader to find the source again. The most common mistake in the reference list is leaving out an essential element, e.g. the year or the publisher. The second most common mistake in the reference list is inconsistency in punctuation and capitalisation.
Use hanging indents to visually differentiate between references. In a hanging indent all but the first line of each reference is indented from the left margin.
As stated above, Harvard UL recommends the use of permanent, stable identifiers such as DOIs. This is because URLs can change or “break” but a DOI will always redirect to the original source. Not all electronic material has a DOI so you should use the URL that best leads back to your source and not to a results page or other dynamic webpage. To check a link, open the URL in a new browser window and see if it directs to the correct page.
DOIs are usually given as alphanumerical strings such as 10.1109/ICGSE.2006.261229. To find the corresponding source you can either prefix the string with http://dx.doi.org/ or put the string into an Internet search engine. When using a DOI in a reference you can use:
available: doi: 10.1109/ICGSE.2006.261229